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Grammarly
Writing Support by Grammarly@EDU grammar check tool is now available to all students and faculty. Grammarly@EDU is an automated grammar tutor and writing revision tool for academic writing. To register for FREE access, go to Grammarly@EDU and sign up using your USA email address. I signed up at Grammarly.com instead of Grammarly.com/edu. What should I do? (see the second option for using a school email without access code).

Cite This For Me
Previously called RefMe. Citation and bibliography generator. For free access, click on Start Citing, choose a citation style, and create projects. Cite This For Me generates citations in all the common styles used at USA, including AMA, APA, and Vancouver styles. Note that the free version of Cite This For Me does not allow users to save bibliographies. You must create and export them within the same session.

See Cite This For Me's support page or contact the library for assistance.

 
A free, online citation management tool. WATCH a tutorial from our librarians. Additional resources: Mastering Zotero Manual, Understanding Zotero guide
 
A free, online citation management tool. WATCH a tutorial from our librarians. Additional resources: Video tutorials
 
Qiqqa is free research management software. It allows you to create a searchable library of all your article PDFs, including ones that have been scanned in from paper copies. For more information, please visit Qiqqa's site (Click on the heading for Qiqqa above) or read this information page.
 
PubMed will find the correct abbreviations to use for peer-reviewed journals as well as determine the correct journal title for an abbreviation.  Enter the journal abbreviation or journal title in the search field, adjust your limiters from the drop down menu to "Journals" and PubMed will provide the journal information.
 
 
Online Tools for Organizing and Writing a Research Paper
Includes information on such tools as OneNote, Zotero, and CleverKeys. Also gives IT tips for backing up your work.  

AMA Style Guide

This guide is meant to provide basic examples of the AMA citation style. As this guide does not include every example possible, please consult the AMA Manual of Style (tenth edition) for a more extensive understanding of AMA citation. USA students, faculty, and staff have access to the full content of the AMA Manual of Style online. Also, please note that due to the limitations of the website, some spacing might not be formatted correctly in the examples below. Please access the PDF version of the guide for more accurate information on spacing.

If you have any questions, or you do not see the information you need, contact the Library. Please be aware that the only definitive source of AMA style is the AMA Manual of Style publication itself.
 
For a printable PDF copy of this guide, please click here.

Examples

Book—Single Author

Format:

1.       Author. Book Title. Edition number (2nd edition or above). City, State (or Country) of publisher: Publisher’s name; copyright year.

 

Example:

1.       Snell RS. Clinical Anatomy by Regions. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012.

 



Book—Multiple Authors

Format:

2.       First Author, Second Author [if there are more than six authors, use “et al.” after the third author]. Book Title. Edition number [2nd edition or above]. City, State (or Country) of publisher: Publisher’s name; copyright year.

 

Example:

2.       Shamus E, Stern DF. Effective Documentation for Physical Therapy Professionals. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011.

 


Book—Editor

Format:

3.       Author(s), eds. Book Title. Edition number [2nd edition or above]. City, State (or Country) of publisher: Publisher’s name; copyright year.

 

Example:

3.       O’Sullivan SB, Schmitz TJ, eds. Physical Rehabilitation. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company; 2007.

 


Chapter or Article within a Book

Format:

4.       Author(s) of article. Title of article. In: Editor’s name(s), ed(s). Book Title. Edition number [2nd edition or above]. City, State (or Country) of publisher: Publisher’s name; copyright year:Chapter or page number.

 

Example:

4.       Solensky R. Drug allergy: desensitization and treatment of reactions to antibiotics and aspirin. In: Lockey P, ed. Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2004:585-606.

 

Article from a Print Journal—One Author
Format:
      5.       Author. Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year;Volume(Issue number):Inclusive page numbers.
 
Example:
      5.       Lobach DF. Clinical informatics: supporting the use of evidence in practice and relevance to physical therapy education. J Phys Ther Educ. 2004;18(3):24-34.

 

 

Article from a Print Journal—Multiple Authors
Format:
      6.   First Author, Second Author [if there are more than six authors, use “et al.” after the third author]. Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year;Volume(Issue number):Inclusive page numbers. 
 
Example:
      6.       Crompton J, Imms C, McCoy AT, et al. Group-based task-related training for children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2007;27(4):43-65.


Article from an Online Journal—DOI (digital object identifier) available

Format:

7.       Author. Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year;vol(issue):pages. doi:xx.xxxx.   

Example:

7.       Subauste CS. Autophagy as an antimicrobial strategy. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009;7(6):743-752. doi:10.1586/eri.09.41.

 


Article from an Online Journal—no DOI available

Format:

8.       Author. Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year;vol(issue):pages. URL. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date (will often be the only date available). 

 

Example:

8.       Bouwer M, Goosen TC, Rheeders M. Drug-drug interaction after single oral doses of the furanocoumarin methoxsalen and cyclosporine. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;46(7):768-775. http://go.galegroup.com.prx-usa.lirn.net/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA148007854&v=2.1&u=lirn_crevc&it=r&p=EAIM&sw=w. Accessed November 13, 2012.

 

  
Article—EPub ahead of Print (follow either “with DOI” or “without DOI” model above)
Format:
      9.      Author. Title of article [published online ahead of print Publication Date]. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year;vol(issue):pages. URL. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date.
Note: EPub articles may not have the volume, issue, or page numbers yet
 
Example:
      9.       Liu-Ambrose T, Nagamatsu LS, Hsu CL, Bolandzadeh N. Emerging concept: ‘central benefit model’ of exercise in falls prevention [published online April 20 2012]. Br J Sports Med. 2012. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2011-090725. 

 


Web Page

Format:

10.   Author or responsible body. Title of item cited. Name of website. URL. Published date. Updated date. Accessed date.

 

Example:

10.   American Physical Therapy Association. Professionalism. American Physical Therapy Association. http://www.apta.org/Professionalism/. Published June 2007. Updated March 25 2011. Accessed November 13 2012.

 

Other Media
Format:
      11.   Author. Title [format]. City, State (or Country) of Publisher: Publisher; Year.
 
Example:
      11.   Hillman SK. Interactive Functional Anatomy. [CD-ROM]. London: Primal Pictures Ltd; 2011.
 
PowerPoint Slides and Presentations
Format:
      12. Author or Presenter. Title of presentation. Presented at: Event; Month Day, Year; Location. URL. Accessed date.
 
Example:
      12. Katzman S, Simas, S. Ethics and Professionalism in Contemporary Physical Therapy Practice. Presented at: 2015 California Physical Therapy Association Annual Conference; September 27, 2015; Pasadena, CA. http://www.slideshare.net/jdhein22/ethics-and-professionalism-in-contemporary-physical-therapy-practice. Accessed December 21, 2015.
 
Course Lecture Notes (Bound)
Treat this like a book. See examples for citing books
 
Course Lecture or Lecture Notes (Unbound)
Format
      13. Author [instructor or presenter]. Title of Lecture. [class lecture/class lecture notes]. Location: Institution; Date.

In Text Citations

Note: When citing the same source more than once, include the page number in the reference, in parentheses.

 

Example :

Subauste writes that, “Effective manipulation of autophagy requires understanding of the molecular events that govern this process."7(743)

 

References

7.        Subauste CS. Autophagy as an antimicrobial strategy. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009;7(6):743-752. doi:10.1586/eri.09.41.

More Help

For further AMA citations examples, see also:
 

AMA Manual of Style   

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) Medical Writing

APA Style Central

This official and ultimate resource on APA Style includes online tools to help you learn, research, write, and publish in APA Style. Click on the link below and watch either the "I Am a Student" or "I Am an Instructor" video to learn how to use APA Style Central. Create a personal login to save references and papers within the platform.

APA Style Central

APA Style Guide

This guide is meant to provide basic examples of the APA citation style. As this guide does not include every example possible, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (sixth edition) for a more extensive understanding of APA citation. If you have any questions, or you do not see the information you need, contact the Library. Please be aware that the only definitive source of APA style is the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association publication itself.
 
For a printable PDF copy of this guide, please click here.

Examples

Book—Single Author

Format:

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of Publication). Title. City, State of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

Jones, A. A. (1993). The lumbar spine, the cervical spine and the knee: Testing and rehabilitation. Ocala, FL: MedX Corporation.

 

Book—Multiple Authors

Format:

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of Publication). Title. City, State of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

Furst, G. F., & Gerber, L. H., & Smith, C. C. (1985). Rehabilitation through learning. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

 

Book—Editor(s) as Author(s)

Format:

Editor Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Ed.). Year of Publication). Title. City, State of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

Williams, P. L., Bannister, L. H., Warwick, R., Dyson, M., & Gray, H. (Eds.). (1989). Gray’s anatomy. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone, Inc.

 

Chapter or Article within a Book

Format:

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In Editor(s) First Initial. Middle Initial. Last Name (Ed[s]), Title of Book (chapter page numbers). City, State of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

Wilder, R. L. (1993). Rheumatoid arthritis. In H. R. Schumacher (Ed.), Primer on the rheumatic diseases (pp. 86-89). Atlanta, GA: Arthritis Foundation.

 

Book—Edition other than the First

Format:

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of publication). Title (edition). City, State of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

Snell, R. S. (2012). Clinical anatomy by regions (9th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

 

Article from a Print Journal—One Author

Format:

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue number if applicable*), page(s).

Example:

Gajdosik, C. G. (1991). Issues of parent compliance: What the clinician and researcher should know. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics11, 73-87.

 

Article from a Print Journal—Two or More Authors

Format:

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume(issue number if applicable*), page(s).

Example:

Maluf, K. S., Sahrmann, S. A., & Van Dillen, L. R. (2000). Use of a classification system to guide nonsurgical management of a patient with chronic low back pain. Physical Therapy, 80, 1097-1111.

 

Article from an Online Journal—DOI (digital object identifier) available

Format:

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(issue number if applicable*) , Page Number(s). doi:#

Example:

Dabholkar, A., Gala, M., & Yardi, S. (2014). Correlation of foot posture, foot function with balance and gait in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Indian Journal of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, 8(2), 23-28. doi:10.5958/j.0973-5674.8.2.053

 

Article from an Online Journal—no DOI available

Format:

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(issue number if applicable*), Page number(s). Retrieved from Journal homepage URL.

Example:

Rosen, C. S., Henson, B. R., Finney, J. W., & Moos, R. H. (2000). Consistency of self-administered and interview-based Addiction Severity Index composite scores. Addiction, 95, 419-424. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN%291360-0443

 

Article—Epub ahead of Print (Follow either with- or without DOI model above)

Format:

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of article. Title of Journal. Advance online publication. doi:#

Example:

Pratt, M., Norris, J., Lobelo, F., Roux, L., & Wang, G. (2012). The cost of physical inactivity: Moving into the 21st century. British Journal of Sports Medicine. Advance online publication. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091810

 

 

*Note on Issue Numbers: For journal articles, issue numbers are only given if the journal is paginated by issue. If the journal is paginated by volume, then give only the volume number.

 

 

Web Page

Format:

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web Address

Example:

American Physical Therapy Association. (2007). Professionalism. Retrieved from http://apta.org/Professionalism/

 

Video Recording 

Format:

Producer Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Producer). (Year of publication). Title [DVD]. Available from http://xxxxx

Example:

Peterson, T. (Producer). (2011). Hope restored: Functional neurology serves humanity [DVD]. Available from http://www.myhoperestored.com/

 

Course PowerPoint Slides and Course Notes

Format:

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Date). Title of document [PowerPoint slides OR Lecture notes]. Retrieved from http://URL

Example:

Smith, A. (2015). Citation 101 [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

In-Text Citations

Work with One Author

 

If the author’s name appears as part of the sentence:

Put the publication year in parenthesis after the author’s last name.

Example: Pratt (2012) found that physical inactivity…

 

If the author’s name does not appear as part of the sentence:

Place the author’s last name and year of publication separated by a comma in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

Example: The survey showed that students preferred eBooks to print books (Smith, 2015).

 

Work with Multiple Authors

 

Works with two authors

Example if the authors’ names appear as part of the sentence: Smith and Jones (2010) found that physical activity…

Example if the authors’ names do not appear as part of the sentence: At least thirty minutes of physical activity per day helps…(Smith & Jones, 2010).

 

Works with three to five authors:

For the first citation, include all authors’ last names followed by the year of publication. In subsequent citations, only include the last name of the first author followed by et al. and the year of publication.

Example first in-text citation:

Physical therapy interventions for Parkinson’s Disease include…(Davis, Jones, & Thompson, 2013).

Example subsequent in-text citations:

Parkinson’s Disease is….(Davis et al., 2013).

 

Works with six or more authors:

Use only the last name of the first author followed by et al. and the publication year separated by a comma.

Example:

Walking thirty minutes or more per day improves…(Thompson et al., 2000).

For more examples of how to cite sources with multiple authors, see the “Multiple Authors” chart by Rasmussen College: http://guides.rasmussen.edu/apa/intext

 

Direct Quotations

When citing a direct quote you will need to include the page number or if page numbers are unavailable, use the paragraph number. If neither page numbers nor paragraph numbers are available and the work includes headings, use the heading and the number of the paragraph following it. Please see pgs. 171-172 of the APA manual for further clarification and examples of these rules.

Example 1 (Author’s name not used in the text):

It has been demonstrated that “many intracellular cascades have been reported to affect autophagy” (Subauste, 2009, para. 6).

Example 2 (Author’s name is used in the text):

Smith (2015) found that “55% of distance education students rented eBooks for two or more of their courses” (p. 25) while on campus students…

More Help

This guide is meant to provide basic examples of the Vancouver Citation Style, also known as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals. As this guide does not include every example possible, please consult Citing Medicine (second edition) for a more extensive understanding of Vancouver citation. If you have any questions, or you do not see the information you need, contact the Library.
 
For a printable PDF version of this guide, please click here

Examples

References on the Reference List are numbered and are listed in the order in which they are originally referenced in the text.

 

Book—Single Author/Editor

Format:

1.       Author. Title: subtitle (if available). Edition (other than 1st). Place of publication: Publisher; Year.

Example:

1.       Snell RS. Clinical anatomy by regions. 9thed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012.

 

Book—Multiple Authors/Editors (2-6 Authors)*

Format:

2.       Author(s), editors (if editors, include this denotation). Title: subtitle (if available). Edition (other than 1st). Place of publication: Publisher; Year.

Example:

2.       Voight ML, Hoogenboom BJ, Prentice WE, editors. Musculoskeletal interventions: techniques for therapeutic exercise. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2007.

*If a book has more than six authors/editors, write “et al” after the sixth name.

 

Organizational Author

Format:

3.       Organization. Title: subtitle (if available). Edition (other than 1st). Place of publication: Publisher; Year.

Example:

3.       American Physical Therapy Association. Guide to physical therapist practice. 2nded. Alexandria: American Physical Therapy Association; 2003.

 

Chapter or Article within a Book

Format:

4.       Chapter author. Title of chapter. In: Book author/editor. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Page numbers.

 

Example:

4.       Solensky R. Drug allergy: desensitization and treatment of reactions to antibiotics and aspirin. In: Lockey P, editor. Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy. 3rded. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2004. P. 585-606.

 

eBook

Format:

5.       Author(s)/Editor(s). Title: subtitle (if available) [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year [date of citation]. Available from Name of database: eBook URL

Example:

5.       Salley K. Physical medicine and rehabilitation[Internet]. New Delhi: World Technologies; 2012 [cited 2013 Nov 17]. Available from EBSCOhost eBook Collection: http://search.ebscohost.com.prx-usa.lirn.net/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=406964&site=ehost-live

 

Note: In Vancouver style, journal titles are referenced in their National Library of Medicine abbreviated form. If the journal abbreviation is unlisted, please refer to the NLM Catalog: Journals referenced in the NCBI Databases .

 

Article from a Print Journal

Format:

6.       Author(s)/Editor(s). Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal. Date of publication; Volume(Issue): Page numbers.

Example:

6.       Lobach DF. Clinical informatics: supporting the use of evidence in practice and relevance to physical therapy education. J Phys Ther Educ. 2004; 18(3):24-34.

 

Article from an Online Database

Format:

7.       Author(s)/Editor(s). Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal [Internet]. Date of publication [date of access];Volume(Issue): Page numbers. Available from Name of Database: Article URL

Example:

7.       Bouwer M, Goosen TC, Rheeders M. Drug-drug interaction after single oral doses of the furanocoumarin methoxsalen and cyclosporine. J Clin Pharmacol [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2013 May 3]; 46(7):768-775. Available from Academic OneFile: http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA148007854&v=2.1&u=lirn_crevc&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&asid=01868ef0153ff6b5a38b54db086bc7fd

 

Article –ePub ahead of Print

Format:

8.       Author(s)/Editor(s). Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal [Internet]. Date of publication [date of access];Volume(Issue): Page numbers. Date of ePublication. Available from Name of Database: Article URL.

 

Example:

8.       Liu-Ambrose T, Nagamatsu LS, Hsu CL, Bolandzadeh N. Emerging concept: ‘central benefit model’ of exercise in falls prevention. Br J Sports Med [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2013 Jul 7]; 47(2): 115-117. EPub 2012Apr 20. Available from the British Journal of Sports Medicine:http://bjsm.bmj.com.prx-usa.lirn.net/content/47/2/115.full?sid=79849b3a-9936-4e23-a4ad-b06b1e3ff51b

 

Web Page

Format:

9.       Author(s)/Editor(s) (if available). Title of website [Internet]. City of publication (State initials): Publisher; Copyright date. Title of web page or article; Date of publication [date of access];[approximate screen length]. Available from: URL

Example:

9.       American Physical Therapy Association. American Physical Therapy Association [Internet]. Alexandria (VA): American Physical Therapy Association; c2013. Professionalism; 2013 Nov 12 [cited 2013 Nov 20];[about 4 screens]. Available from:http://www.apta.org/professionalism/

In-Text Citations

The Vancouver Citation style uses the corresponding numbers from the Reference List at the end of the paper to document in-text citations. Multiple references can occur in one sentence, if necessary.

 

Examples:

 

Bouwer, Goosen, and Rheeders (7) report that…

 

In research regarding the interactions of various drugs in the body (4,7)…

 

Physical therapists provide several types of therapeutic exercises in their practice (3,p104-5).

More Help